Humphrey de Bohun, 3rd Earl of Hereford and of Essex, 1249-1298

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Knights of the Middle Ages I 1146-1492

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Humphrey de Bohun (1249 – 1298), inherited the earldoms of Hereford and Essex in 1275 together with possessions in the Welsh Marches from his mother, Eleanor de Braose. His early years were concerned with trying to recover Marcher lands captured by Llywelyn ap Gruffudd. This was finally accomplished through Edward I’s war in Wales in 1277. He also had a long-lasting private feud with the earl of Gloucester, first over a debt and then over a castle Gloucester started constructing on land De Bohun claimed was his. Eventually King Edward I intervened and ordered the feud to cease. In 1294 the King of France declared the English Duchy of Aquitaine forfeit. King Edward mobilised and demanded military service from his earls at the parliament in Salisbury in 1297. Together with The Earl Marshal of England, the Earl of Norfolk he refused on the basis that he should not be obliged to serve abroad except in the company of the King. The underlying problem was the heavy taxation demanded by the King for his prosecution of simultaneous wars in Wales and France. Bohun stood with Norfolk and as more barons came to oppose the King another civil war seemed apparent when the Scots inflicted a heavy defeat at Stirling Bridge. With general support to protect the North Edward agreed to confirm Magna Carta in Confirmatio Cantorum (Confirmation of the Charters). The earls consequently consented to serve with the king in Scotland and Bohun fought with the King at the Battle of Falkirk in 1298. But suspecting the King was backsliding on his Confirmation he then withdrew forcing the King to terminate the campaign.

Additional information

Dimensions37 × 54 cm