The 1899 America’s Cup was the 10th challenge for the Cup. It took place in the New York City harbour and consisted of a best of five series of races between the defender, Columbia, entered by the New York Yacht Club, and Sir Thomas Lipton’s Shamrock, representing the Royal Ulster Yacht Club. Columbia won all three races against Shamrock. Columbia, a fin keel sloop, was the defender of the tenth America’s Cup race that same year against British challenger Shamrock as well as the defender of the eleventh America’s Cup race in 1901 against British challenger Shamrock II. She was the first vessel to win the trophy twice in a row (a record not equalled until Intrepid’s back-to-back wins in 1967 and 1970.) Columbia was designed and built in 1898-9 by Nathanael Herreshoff and the Herreshoff Manufacturing Company for owners J. Pierpont Morgan and Edwin Dennison Morgan of the New York Yacht Club. She was the third successful defender built by Herreshoff. Shamrock was designed by third-generation Scottish boatbuilder, William Fife III, and built in 1898 by J. Thornycroft & Co., at Milwall, for owner Sir Thomas Lipton of the Royal Ulster Yacht Club (and of Lipton Tea fame). Shamrock had a manganese-bronze bottom and aluminium topside clinker built over a steel frame with a pine decking.